Chemical Burn Treatment: Emergency Response and First Aid

 

chemical burn treatment response and first aid

Chemical burns can happen unexpectedly and require immediate attention to prevent severe damage. Whether in industrial settings or at home, understanding the appropriate first aid steps is crucial. This article discusses the nature of chemical burns, their types, and initial treatment steps.

 

What Is A Chemical Burn?

A chemical burn, also known as a caustic burn, occurs when skin or other tissues are exposed to a corrosive substance that causes damage through a chemical reaction. This type of injury can be caused by various hazardous chemicals, including acids, alkalis, oxidizers, solvents, and some detergents or cleaning products, that can compromise the integrity of the tissue if not addressed properly and immediately.

The severity of the burn depends on the concentration of the chemical, the amount of chemical involved, the duration of exposure, and the penetrative ability of the chemical. Swift removal or neutralization of the chemical is critical to halting the burning process.

Certain environments and professions are at higher risk for chemical burns, including laboratories, industrial settings, and manufacturing plants where chemical handling is routine. However, household products like drain cleaners, pool sanitizers, and even some beauty products can also pose risks, underscoring the importance of safety and proper handling across all settings.

What Causes Chemical Burns?

Chemical burns are typically caused by exposure to corrosive substances that can react with the skin and other tissues. Common sources include:

  • Industrial Chemicals: Such as acids, alkalis, metal cleaning agents, and cement powder used in manufacturing and construction industries.
  • Household Products: Cleaning products like bleach, ammonia, and drain cleaners contain strong chemicals that can cause burns if mishandled.
  • Personal Care Products: Some hair relaxers, hair dyes, and nail care products contain harsh chemicals that can burn the skin if used improperly or without adequate protective gear.
  • Agricultural Chemicals: Fertilizers and pesticides often contain potent chemicals that can cause severe burns upon direct contact.

 

What Does A Chemical Burn Look Like?

chemical burn injury on the hand

Chemical burns can vary significantly in appearance depending on the type of chemical involved, the concentration, and the duration of exposure. Here are detailed descriptions of how chemical burns can appear on different parts of the body:

Skin
Chemical burns on the skin can start as a red, irritated area that might feel painful or itchy. The skin may look shiny or wet if the chemical is still present. As the burn develops, it may become more defined. The affected area might turn a deeper red, and swelling can occur. In severe cases, blisters may form, and the skin may peel away. For more concentrated chemicals or prolonged exposure, the burn can cause the skin to turn black or white and become charred or leathery. Dead skin might slough off, and deep ulcers can form, exposing underlying tissues.

Eyes
Chemical exposure to the eyes typically results in immediate redness and tearing. The eyes may swell shut, and victims will likely experience intense pain or burning sensations. There may be blurring or temporary vision loss. In severe cases, the cornea might appear cloudy or whitish.

Ingestion
If a chemical is ingested, the lips, mouth, and throat can appear swollen and red. There might be white or charred areas inside the mouth or on the lips. Signs of deeper burns include drooling, difficulty swallowing, or the sensation of pain extending deep into the chest or abdomen, indicating damage to the esophagus or stomach.

Chemical burn injuries appear in different forms. Its effect on the skin is dictated by the type of chemical and its damage to cellular components:

  • Protein denaturation: Acids cause coagulation of proteins, leading to tissue necrosis and creating a barrier that may limit deeper penetration of the acid, albeit causing severe surface damage.
  • Saponification of fats: Alkali burns are particularly perilous as they cause saponification (soap formation) when interacting with fats in the skin. This reaction not only damages the tissue but also allows the chemical to penetrate deeper, potentially reaching underlying tissues and causing extensive injuries.
  • Oxidation: Oxidizing agents, such as bleach, generate free radicals that disrupt cells by breaking down cellular components, leading to tissue damage and necrosis.
  • Dehydration and hydrolysis: Some chemicals absorb water from tissues (dehydrating them) and may also break chemical bonds within the tissue (hydrolysis), further exacerbating the injury.

Chemical burn on the body can occur in different stages depending on the severity of the injury.

  • First-degree burns are superficial and affect only the outer layer of skin, appearing as mild redness and swelling.
  • Second-degree burns involve deeper layers of the skin and result in blistering, severe redness, and leaking fluids. The area is very painful, and the blisters may burst, increasing the risk of infection.
  • Third-degree burns are the most severe as the injury has penetrated through all the layers of the skin and has the potential to damage underlying bones, muscles, and nerves. The area might feel numb due to nerve damage, and the appearance can include white, brown, or blackened skin that feels dry or leathery.

 

How To Treat Chemical Burns

chemical burn treatment

Treating chemical burns effectively requires prompt action and appropriate measures based on the type and severity of the burn. Here is a comprehensive guide on how to approach treatment from initial diagnosis to specific treatment methods.

Diagnosis of Chemical Burns

Diagnosing chemical burns accurately is critical to determining the appropriate treatment and preventing further tissue damage. Following these steps allows first responders and medical personnel to approach each situation with more accuracy to the victim’s needs.

1. Initial Assessment
The first step in diagnosing a chemical burn injury is a thorough assessment of the patient’s overall condition, especially if there are potential risks of systemic toxicity due to chemical exposure. This includes checking vital signs (heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate) and assessing mental status to gauge the severity of the exposure.

2. Identification of the Chemical
Identifying the chemical responsible for the burn is pivotal. Patients or responders should provide any available information about the chemical. Using documentation such as the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) can offer critical details such as the physical properties of the substance, its mechanism of action, and concentration.

3. Physical Examination
To provide the most suitable chemical burn treatment, it is important to conduct a physical assessment of the injury. This looks at the location and size of the burn and determines how much surface area is affected. It also gauges whether the burn is superficial, partial thickness, or has reached full thickness in severity. Furthermore, the physical examination looks for signs of secondary damage or other related injury caused by inhalation or systemic effects of the chemical.

4. Laboratory Tests
In cases of severe chemical burns or when the patient shows signs of systemic involvement, laboratory tests may be necessary. The most common tests requested for this type of emergency include:

  • Blood tests: To check for signs of infection, electrolyte imbalances, and renal function, especially if the chemical could have systemic toxicity.
  • Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs might be used to assess the extent of damage to deeper tissues and structures.
  • pH testing of the skin: In certain instances, testing the pH of the skin surface can help understand the extent of chemical neutralization needed.

5. Consultation with Specialists
Depending on the chemical involved and the severity of the burn, consultation with specialists such as toxicologists, burn specialists, or ophthalmologists might be required. These experts can provide insights into specific treatment protocols and long-term management strategies.

Chemical Burn First Aid in Case of Emergency

In urgent situations, prompt and correct first aid administration can significantly impact the outcome of chemical burn injuries. Chemical burn first aid can effectively limit damage and prevent further injury to the victim. With that, here is a detailed guide on how to perform first aid for chemical burns in times of emergency:

Immediate Action
In case of accidental spill or chemical exposure leading to chemical burn injury, the first step is to secure the area and ensure that it is safe without risking further exposure to the chemical. This might involve evacuating the area, deploying spill kits, or using personal protective equipment. Once the surrounding area is deemed safe, quickly and carefully remove any clothing or jewelry that has chemical residue to stop further exposure and contact with the skin.

The next step is to flush the affected area with large amounts of lukewarm water to dilute and remove the chemical for at least 20 to 30 minutes. This process is more effective when done in an emergency wash station such as an eye wash station or safety shower.

Assessing the Situation
If possible, identify the chemical involved and retrieve any available safety information. After rinsing, cover the burn lightly with a sterile, non-adhesive bandage or a clean cloth. Avoid using fluffy cotton or anything that might stick to the burn. It is crucial not to use any cream, ointment, fats, or other substances to the burn unless directed to do so by a medical professional. Callously applying remedies can trap heat and chemicals in the skin, exacerbating the injury.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

While some minor chemical burn injuries could be dealt with without the need for emergency personnel, it is also important to know when to seek medical help. As a general guide, contact a medical professional immediately if you observe any of the following:

  • The burn penetrates through the first layer of skin, or is extensive, even if it seems mild.
  • The chemical burn is on the face, eyes, hands, feet, or over a major joint.
  • The victim is experiencing symptoms of shock or severe pain that is not alleviated by over-the-counter painkillers.
  • There is evidence of inhalation or ingestion of the chemical causing systemic effects such as difficulty breathing, vomiting, or altered consciousness.
  • The burn does not improve within 24 hours or shows signs of infection such as increased pain, redness, fever, swelling, or oozing.

 

Chemical Burns: Prevention and Safety Tips

Preventing chemical burns involves strict adherence to safety protocols, proper handling of chemicals, and understanding the risks associated with chemical use. Here are some tips and key strategies to enhance chemical safety and minimize the risks of chemical burns in the workplace.

Chemical Safety Best Practices

Implementing and adhering to chemical safety best practices is vital in preventing accidents, including chemical burns. Utilizing a chemical safety audit checklist can help ensure that such safety measures are in place. Here are essential practices that should be followed in any setting where chemicals are used:

  • Proper Storage: Store chemicals in clearly labeled, sturdy containers in a cool, dry place. Ensure caps and lids are secure to prevent spills.
  • Follow Protocols: Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions and safety guidelines when using chemicals. Never mix chemicals unless you are certain it is safe to do so.
  • Emergency Procedures: Have a clear and practiced plan for dealing with chemical spills and exposures, including accessible emergency contact information and first aid supplies.
  • Regular Training: Conduct regular training sessions on chemical safety for all employees who handle hazardous substances to ensure they understand the risks and emergency procedures.

Essential PPE Against Chemical Hazards

The use of comprehensive personal protective equipment (PPE) is critical in preventing chemical burns. It serves as the first line of defense against accidental spills and chemical exposure, and can effectively minimize the possibility of burn or injury.

Gloves

Choose gloves based on the chemical being handled. Common materials include nitrile for oil-based chemicals, neoprene for acids and bases, and butyl or Viton for aldehydes and ketones. The gloves should fit well and cover the wrist and part of the forearm for adequate protection.

Eye Protection

Safety goggles should provide a secure seal around the eyes to prevent chemicals from splashing into the eyes. When additional protection is needed, a face shield can be used in conjunction with goggles to protect the entire face from splashes or debris.

Respiratory Protection

Select a respirator that matches the type of chemical exposure. For example, use a respirator with cartridges specifically designed for organic vapors when dealing with solvents. It is essential to ensure that respirators are properly fit-tested to provide effective respiratory protection.

Protective Clothing

Wear lab coats or chemical-resistant aprons to protect against splashes. Materials should be chosen based on the type of chemical handled, such as PVC or neoprene for splash protection. In more demanding environments such as those with large quantities of hazardous materials or where full-body coverage is necessary, coveralls can offer additional protection. Additionally, chemical-resistant boots or shoe covers should be worn to protect against spills and splashes on the feet.

Standards and Regulatory Compliance

Adherence to established standards and regulatory compliance is essential for ensuring safety in environments where chemicals are used. Here are some key standards and regulations that enhances chemical safety:

OSHA Hazard Communication Standard Requires chemical manufacturers and importers to evaluate the hazards of the chemicals they produce or import. Employers must provide information about these hazards including container labeling, safety data sheets, and employee training.
OSHA Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Standard Mandates that employers provide workers with appropriate personal protective equipment when exposed to hazards such as chemical burns.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) / Safety Data Sheets (SDS)  Employers must ensure that safety data sheets for all chemicals in the workplace are readily accessible to all employees during their work shifts.
ISO Globally Harmonized System (GHS) Aims to ensure consistent information about chemical hazards and protective measures by standardizing the classification and labeling of chemicals internationally.

 

FAQs

How long does it take for a chemical burn to heal?

Healing time varies depending on the severity: mild burns may heal within a few days, while severe burns might take weeks or even months to heal completely.

How do you heal a chemical burn fast?

Rinse the area immediately with cool water for at least 20 minutes, remove contaminated clothing, apply a sterile dressing, and seek medical advice for further treatment to promote faster healing.

What to put on a chemical burn?

After thoroughly rinsing the area with water, cover it with a sterile, non-fluffy dressing or bandage. Avoid applying creams or ointments unless directed by a healthcare professional.

What are the three chemicals that frequently cause chemical burns in the workplace?

Common chemicals include sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, and ammonia.

Do chemical burns leave scars?

Severe chemical burns can leave scars depending on the depth and extent of the injury. Proper medical treatment and follow-up care can help minimize scarring.

What ointment is good for chemical burns?

Use antibiotic ointments as recommended by a healthcare provider to prevent infection and promote healing. Do not apply any ointment until the chemical has been completely rinsed off and it is confirmed safe by medical personnel.

The material provided in this article is for general information purposes only. It is not intended to replace professional/legal advice or substitute government regulations, industry standards, or other requirements specific to any business/activity. While we made sure to provide accurate and reliable information, we make no representation that the details or sources are up-to-date, complete or remain available. Readers should consult with an industrial safety expert, qualified professional, or attorney for any specific concerns and questions.

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Author: Herbert Post

Born in the Philadelphia area and raised in Houston by a family who was predominately employed in heavy manufacturing. Herb took a liking to factory processes and later safety compliance where he has spent the last 13 years facilitating best practices and teaching updated regulations. He is married with two children and a St Bernard named Jose. Herb is a self-described compliance geek. When he isn’t studying safety reports and regulatory interpretations he enjoys racquetball and watching his favorite football team, the Dallas Cowboys.